What health considerations are there?

All of the potential health considerations discussed in the exploratory drilling phase—air quality, water quality, disease burden, safety, and health-related quality of life (including changes to the local economy, society, noise level, viewshed, and psychology of the community)—continue to be relevant in Stage 4, with many of them intensifying during development when multiple wells are constructed and the temporary workforce swells to its largest size.

As the wells begin producing oil or gas for market, new activities that could have health impacts may emerge, such as the use of compressor stations for the transport of gas. Although large quantities of water are used to hydraulically fracture the wells in the exploration phase, water usage is more likely to cause concern in this phase when multiple wells are drilled, fractured, and later re-stimulated.